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Impedance Heaters

Category: Products



Armstrong/Chemtec impedance heaters are direct electric heaters for process fluids in which a metallic pipe transmits electric current and simultaneously has pressurized fluid flowing along its length. The resistance of the fluid carrying pipe produces heat which is absorbed by the fluid in contact with the pipe’s inner surface. In this equipment, the pipe acts as the pressure containment vessel, the heating element, and the heat transfer surface. Our design prohibits current from entering connecting piping without special electrical isolation devices.


The basic design of an impedance heater requires the integration of electrical engineering, heat transfer engineering and mechanical engineering concepts. Armstrong/Chemtec engineers are unique in that they have the necessary multidiscipline capabilities to provide the optimum heating solutions for applications which are ill-suited for other types of equipment. Our impedance heaters, ranging in size from 10kW to larger than 1MW, have been used in a wide variety of difficult process applications such as:


Heating supercritical water and other fluids

High temperature gas heating

Tubular reactors requiring heat input

Heating to temperatures above 1850°F (1010°C)

Heating fluids at pressure higher than 3500 psig((240 barg.)


Commercial scale impedance heaters utilize three phase alternating current, typically at low voltage, high amperage and feature:


Dual winding transformer often less than 80 volts (secondary)

Thyristor control panel to modulate power and achieve accurate fluid outlet temperature control

Pipe coil either a serpentine or a helical configuration

Pipe coil may be single circuit or have multiple parallel passes with inlet and outlet headers


The power connections to the pipe coil are positioned to equally balance the current between the three wye connected phases, with the fluid inlet and outlet connections at ground. The entire coil is mounted in an internally insulated steel casing that assures overall efficiencies of 95 to 99%.

If you are looking for Impedance Heaters then look no further than Armstrong/Chemtec.

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